From the perspective of urban development law, the TOD model is undoubtedly advanced, but because the model involves multiple interests and the design scheme is complex, its practice status is uneven in the maturity of countries around the world. In recent years, with the shrinking of traditional residential development business and the needs of urban development in China, the TOD model has begun to receive much attention.
Hong Kong International Finance Centre (IFC) is a famous landmark of a world-class financial center. Its efficient and convenient urban complex design will impress visitors from all over the world. The International Finance Centre Mall connects to the Airport Express and connects the remaining three parts of the National Fund, where you can check in and check your baggage. In addition, the internal streamlines of the building extend in all directions, and the layered connection between office and business leads the office flow to the commercial complex.
Not well known to everyone, IFC is one of the classic cases of the TOD model world. This model can not only alleviate the contradiction between traffic congestion and land shortage caused by urban development, but also greatly improve the convenience and experience of urban residents' work and life.
The core of the TOD model is actually traffic-guided development. At first, people did not accurately understand and recognize its importance. However, from the perspective of urban development law, the TOD model is undoubtedly advanced, but because the model involves multiple interests and the design scheme is complex, its practice status is uneven in the maturity of countries around the world. In recent years, with the shrinking of traditional residential development business and the needs of urban development in China, the TOD model has begun to receive much attention.
TAD and TOD
Whether it is to solve the environmental and traffic problems caused by automobiles, to limit the disorderly spread of cities, or to make effective use of resources, many countries have begun to use TOD strategies as a planning model. Singapore, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Tokyo, Toronto, Curitiba, Zurich, and Hong Kong can be said to be model cities for the TOD model.
In fact, China has a deep foundation for practicing the TOD model.
According to the statistics of the Ministry of Transport, as of the end of 2017, the number of cities operating urban rail transit in the mainland has reached 33, with more than 150 lines and more than 4,500 kilometers of operating mileage, ranking first in the world. According to the "13th Five-Year Plan for the Development of Modern Comprehensive Transportation System", the total mileage of urban rail transit operations in the country by 2020 is expected to reach 6,000 kilometers.
However, due to urban development stage, population density, development model, land ownership and public transportation investment system, China's TOD model is still in its infancy. In China's big cities, there are many subways that cover urban complexes, but developers often understand TOD as the development of the surrounding areas of the site, which is closer to the TAD (Transit Adjacent Development) model.
However, as the traditional residential development business is close to the ceiling, many developers are beginning to rethink the future, including turning their attention to longer-term economic benefits.
Vanke’s shareholder report in 2016 stated that we still have many opportunities. The “track + property” development model is the first direction that should be thought of. The development process of densely populated metropolises such as Tokyo and Hong Kong shows that the public transport priority model (TOD) with urban rail transit as the backbone can effectively connect neighboring towns and urban agglomerations, which can increase the effective supply of housing in the core metropolitan area and reduce the cost of living.
Hu Hao, vice president of Longhu Group, said in a recent speech that world-class urban agglomerations have already formed. As a country with rapid development, in recent years, the rapid development of public transportation such as high-speed rail and rail transit has also stimulated the interaction between cities. In particular, in the past two years, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macao and Dawan District, Hangzhou Bay and other new urban agglomerations have emerged. It can be said that operating traffic is the operating urban agglomeration. The business development track of Longhu Group has coincided with the development of public transportation, which is to create four advantages of TOD mode: the first national gridded layout strategy; the second energy level city portal TOD building capability; the third composite industry superposition Resources; the fourth is sustainable development strategies.
According to the incomplete statistics of the 21st Century Business Herald, the large-scale developers currently involved in the TOD model include Vanke, Longhu, Greenland, Greentown, Poly, Country Garden, China Merchants Shekou, Binjiang Group, Yanlord, Sun Hung Kai Properties, Beijing Investment Development, and Shanghai Real Estate. The group waits no less than 21.
TOD mode complexity
Despite the enthusiasm of the entrants, the true TOD model involves stakeholders and the overall design is very complex. In China, developers generally pursue higher turnover and commercial interests, and the TOD model often stays on the slogan.
Take the Hong Kong International Finance Centre as an example. César Pelli, a well-known American architect, developed by IFC Development Limited, a subsidiary of the MTR Corporation (now MTR Corporation) and Sun Hung Kai Properties, Henderson Land, Hong Kong China Gas and BOC Hong Kong. Designed in collaboration with Hong Kong architect Yan Xunqi, the total floor area is 436,000 square meters.
In the field of TOD mode, Japan has experienced four stages of development. The first stage is still at the weak connection level of traffic; in the second stage, rail transit begins to have channels to avoid problems such as wind and rain; the third stage is the construction of subway superstructure; the fourth stage develops to the extreme . For example, Japan's Shibuya Future Light can do a composite of seven tracks, in addition to space connections, but also concerned about the connection between content.
In an interview with the 21st Century Business Herald, Hu Hao said that the complexity of the TOP model is mainly reflected in three aspects. First, the complexity of the interests of all parties, the track itself belongs to the rail transit company, the land and other resources around the track belong to the government, and the developers have invested in construction funds, the balance of interests between the three subjects is not simple. The second is the complexity of spatial superposition. TOD emphasizes scientific space design and efficient use of land, involving different engineering superpositions, which increases the difficulty of project construction and construction safety management. The third is the complexity of the superposition of the business. After the TOD is completed, each format will compete for efficient space. Therefore, how to rationally layout different formats in space, promote synergy and integration between formats, and improve overall operational efficiency are also difficult.
In addition, Hu Hao said that the TOD model has different requirements for developers' capabilities. Because the TOD concept involves the aggregation and compounding of different business formats, it means that developers can't stay in the new house development and sales business, but to build multi-format operations and serve customers. On the one hand, developers must integrate the demands of various professions and departments to create space; on the other hand, they need to integrate and open their own business formats to build a complete and scientific operation system.
Hu Hao believes that the construction of TOD projects, relying on the power of a single composite talent is not realistic, to create a platform for the symbiosis of the workstation model is the key. Through the establishment of a perfect communication mechanism and high-energy training mechanism on the platform, the synergy effect is achieved. Inside Longhu, such a platform is called workshop. Hu Hao said that this platform must be a data-driven, technology-driven platform in the future. This is also the direction of Longhu's future, through data to be a human connection. In the TOD project, data is a scene that is generated around people. Longhu hopes to meet the needs of customers through the driving and rapid iteration of data and technology to add value to customers.
In addition to the uncertainty of the exploration direction and the complexity involved in the planning, due to the complexity of the land background, the development of the TOD model in China mainly lies in the development model problem, which depends mainly on the awareness of the decision-making level in each city.
For example, for the development model, Shanghai clearly stated that “encourage the main body of rail transit construction and the relevant city, district (county) state-owned enterprises to form a comprehensive development entity, and the right to use construction land acquired by agreement, mainly based on independent development, land use rights It is not transferable; if the introduction of social investment entities is involved in the development, the right to use land for construction of rail transit stations will be publicly sold by means of bidding and auction.
Shenzhen has always been based on cooperative development, and independent development only accounts for a small proportion, and it is a relatively simple part. The cooperative development model adopts the legal person and unincorporated cooperation mode respectively. The former refers to the cooperation between the Shenzhen Metro Company and the partner through the project company, and the latter includes the cooperation agreement between the Shenzhen Metro Company and the partner to share the risk through sharing profits. Or commissioned development and other methods for cooperative development. Most of the subway superstructure projects, Shenzhen Metro Co., Ltd. have chosen to cooperate with developers to develop, the specific way is different.
Shanghai Yiju (Blog) Research Institute believes that due to the fact that the concept has not been fully implemented, the planning system is still to be unified, and the development subject determines the efficiency is low, many rail transit TOD development is a large pie-type development, and land resources are consumed more. The use of inefficiency is still a more extensive mode.
However, as the disease in large cities gradually emerges, the TOD model will receive more and more attention. According to the Shanghai Yiju Real Estate Research Institute and the Southwestern Jiaotong University (Shanghai) TOD Research Center jointly released the "Orbital City, the Upper Economics - China Urban Rail Transit TOD Development Research Report" disclosed, according to the calculation of China's urban rail transit development plan, the next three Within five years, the development of the national urban rail transit base will bring about 240 million square meters of development space. According to preliminary statistics, nearly 60% of the cities that have already opened rail transit have developed or are developing bases, and nearly 30% are planning and developing. During the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period, with the rapid development and centralized development of rail transit construction, TOD development will be further accelerated and improved.